[LON-CAPA-cvs] cvs: modules /gerd/roleclicker description.tex

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Index: modules/gerd/roleclicker/description.tex
diff -u modules/gerd/roleclicker/description.tex:1.18 modules/gerd/roleclicker/description.tex:1.19
--- modules/gerd/roleclicker/description.tex:1.18	Wed May 11 12:41:28 2005
+++ modules/gerd/roleclicker/description.tex	Wed May 11 14:29:50 2005
@@ -139,8 +139,9 @@
\item[Multiple-choice and short-answer questions] The most basic and most easily computer-evaluated type of question, representing the conventional (typical back-of-chapter textbook) problem.

For the purposes of this project, multiple choice" and short-answer" will be considered as separate classes, where short-answer includes numerical answers such as \verb!17 kg/m^3!," and formula answers, such as \verb!1/2*m*(vx^2+vy^2)!."
-Short-answer multiple choice questions are those where only one option is correct, see for example the original ConcepTest problems on the left of Figs.~\ref{repre} and \ref{reprecoll}.
-\item[Multiple-choice multiple-response questions]  This type of problem, a first step beyond conventional problems, requires a student to evaluate each statement and make a decision about it. The problem on the right side of Fig.~\ref{repre} is of this type.
+Short-answer multiple choice questions are those where only one option is correct (single-response multiple-choice''),
+see for example the original ConcepTest problems on the left of Figs.~\ref{repre} and \ref{reprecoll}.
+\item[Multiple-response multiple-choice questions]  This type of problem, a first step beyond conventional problems, requires a student to evaluate each statement and make a decision about it. The problem on the right side of Fig.~\ref{repre} is of this type.

\begin{figure}
@@ -261,7 +262,7 @@
yet a considerable number dealt with the physics
of the problems.

-\subsubsection{Previous Results of Discussion Analysis}
+\subsubsection{Previous Results of Discussion Analysis}\label{prevdiscrev}
An analysis of asynchronous online discussions has previously been carried out by the PIs, and we expect some of the results to transfer to in-class discussion settings.
\begin{figure}
\includegraphics[width=86mm]{KortemeyerFig5}% Here is how to import EPS art
@@ -270,8 +271,7 @@
\begin{description}
\item[Student Course Grade] -
Significant differences as a function of course grade appeared when considering the classes of discussions (subsection~\ref{subsec:disccat}).
-In this analysis, the percentage prominance of certain types and
-features in students' cummulative contributions over the semester was analyzed. The individual percentage (relative) prominances were then averaged by grade. Figure~\ref{fig:gradecorrel}
+Figure~\ref{fig:gradecorrel}
shows the outcome of this study by discussion superclass. As an example, the figure is to be interpreted this way: within the indicated errors,
55 percent of a 3.0 student's discussion contributions were solution-oriented. The lines represent second-order polynomial fits to the data.
\begin{itemize}
@@ -279,14 +279,13 @@
\item The relative prominance of physics-related and conceptual discussion contributions on the other hand increases with grade.
\item The relative prominance of procedural discussions does not vary significantly with grades and is consistent with 42 percent promimance across grades and gender, except for the 23 female 4.0 students, where it is $68\pm7$ percent --- the 22 male 4.0 students, by comparison, average $34\pm8$ percent procedural discussions.
\end{itemize}
-Except for the exceptionally high prominance of procedural discussion among the best female students, the results are not surprising, but verify the validity
-of the classification approach.
+The results are not surprising, but verify the validity of the classification approach.

At the same time, the results confirm that conceptual and physics-related discussions are positively correlated with success in the course, while solution-oriented discussion contributions are strongly negatively correlated. While cause and effect may be arguable, in this project,
-particular attention needs to be paid to question properties that elicit either the desirable or undesirable discussion behavioral patterns.
+particular attention needs to be paid to question properties that elicit either the desirable or undesirable discussion patterns.
\item[Influence of Question Types] -
Each question was classified according to the types and features described in subsection~\ref{subsec:problemcat}, and each associated discussion entry according to~\ref{subsec:disccat}. As a measure of the prominence of a class in a given discussion,
-the number of contributions belonging to it is divided by the total number of contributions (table~\ref{table:qtype}).
+the number of contributions belonging to it is divided by the total number of contributions (Table~\ref{table:qtype}).
\begin{table}
\caption{Influence of question types and features on discussions.
The values indicate the percentage prominence of the discussion superclasses, types, and features (columns) for discussions associated with questions of a certain
@@ -324,7 +323,7 @@
Finally, when it comes to conceptual discussions, their prominence is significantly lower in single-response multiple-choice (the type currently used in peer-instruction)
and numerical problems than in the other problem types. In the
earlier study by Kashy~\cite{kashyd01}, it was also found that mastery of these same question types does not predict overall performance on the final exam as well as other question types.
-Multiple-choice problems that do not involve numbers are frequently called conceptual'' questions, but in this study, it was found that they do not necessarily lead to conceptual discussions.
+Multiple-choice problems that do not involve numbers are frequently called conceptual'' questions, but in~\cite{discpaper}, it was found that they do not necessarily lead to conceptual discussions.

It is a surprising result that the only significant difference between conventional'' and representation-translation problems is that students discuss slightly less procedure in favor of
more complaints, and that differences disappear when chat'' is excluded from the analysis. McDermott~\cite{mcdermott} and Beichner~\cite{beichner} on the other hand found that students have unexpected difficulties in translating for example data presented as graphs, so a stronger effect of this feature was expected. In additon, Kashy~\cite{kashyd01} found that mastery of representation-translation problems
@@ -337,7 +336,7 @@

\end{description}
\subsubsection{Procedure}
-Student helpers will be trained and assigned to student groups during lecture to document the discussions using the coding scheme described in subsection~\ref{subsec:disccat}. Results will be stored in conjunction with the statistical data gathered from each question.
+Student helpers will be trained and assigned to student groups during lecture to document the discussions using the coding scheme described in subsection~\ref{subsec:disccat}. Results will be stored in conjunction with the statistical data gathered from each question. Analysis will be carried out as described in \ref{prevdiscrev}.

\subsubsection{Interviews}
We will interview focus groups of students regarding their experiences and perceived relative helpfulness of the different problem types, and ask them to also reflect on how they perceived these question types were influencing their problem-solving strategies. Pascarella~\cite{pascarella02} developed some frameworks for these interviews, which can be built upon.
@@ -378,6 +377,8 @@
\caption{Pre- and post-scores on the Force Concept Inventory of three courses at Harvard.\label{prepostfci}}
\end{figure}

+\subsubsection{Correlation of In-Class and Exam Performance}
+A capability of our systems is that we can use the same question without modifications in online and bubble-sheet exam mode. Since in addition, questions are randomizing, we are able to include some of the same questions used in class on exams and quizzes. A similar study was previously conducted by Kashy~\ref{kashyd1} for homework questions.
\subsubsection{Previous Results}
We have applied
peer-instruction in both the calculus-based and the algebra-based introductory physics courses for non-majors
@@ -507,7 +508,9 @@
original content.

\subsection{Computer-Guided Group Formation}
+The goal of computer-guided group formation is to generate student groups with differing initial responses. Group formation is limited by seating arrangements in a the lecture hall, unless time can be afforded for students to get up and walk around the lecture hall.

+As a first step, seating arrangements in the lecture hall need to be coded into a computer-readable format -- both the BQ and the LON-CAPA group have experience in this area. Then an algorithm needs to be developed to find the optimum configuration of groups of $N$ nearest neighboring students that maximizes initial dissent within the groups. Fig.~\ref{formation} is a mock-up of a possible configuration of two nearest neighbors within a lecture hall. In small lecture halls, such a scheme might be projected at the front of the class, in larger lecture halls where two-way communication devices are used, the information might be directly sent to the students (e.g., turn to the student directly behind you'').

\begin{figure}
@@ -515,6 +518,8 @@
\caption{Computer-guided group formation.\label{formation}
}
\end{figure}
+The system records group configurations and makes analyses of pre- and post-discussion responses within the groups possible.
+
\subsection{Different Question Types}

\begin{figure}

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